Estonia is to block thousands of citizens from accessing online government services from Saturday while it works to fix a security flaw.
A problem with the country’s national identity cards was identified earlier this year, affecting 760,000 people.
The flaw could let attackers decrypt private data or impersonate citizens.
Those who have not had their cards updated with new security certificates will no longer be able to use them to access some services from midnight.
Estonia’s digital ID system lets citizens access government and some private services such as medical records, voting and banking.
But security researchers found the encryption used in the ID cards was easily cracked which could, if exploited, let attackers impersonate people.
“As far as we currently know, there has been no instances of e-identity theft, but the threat assessment of the Police and Border Guard Board and the Information System Authority indicates that this threat has become real,” said the country’s Prime Minister Juri Ratas.
From midnight, only cards that have been updated will continue to work online.
Some citizens had complained that updating their ID card had taken a long time, with the online service often overloaded.
“Spent hours over two days trying to update my ID card as per govt/MFA instructions. Still trying…” said Theresa Bubbear, Britain’s ambassador to Estonia, on Thursday.
This weekend, only “people who use their digital ID cards to provide vital services”, such as medical professionals, will be able to update their digital ID online.
From Monday, the system will be opened back up to everybody. All cards must be updated by March 2018.
“The functioning of an e-state is based on trust and the state cannot afford identity theft happening to the owner of an Estonian ID card,” said Mr Ratas.
It is part of a series of changes as the social network tries to address complaints of abuse and harassment on its website.
It said the changes reflected the “latest trends in online behaviour”.
However, anticipated new policies relating to “violent groups, hateful imagery, and abusive usernames” will not arrive until 22 November.
On Friday, Twitter shared that it will:
email people if their account is suspended, explaining which policy they violated
consider the context and “newsworthiness” of tweets when evaluating whether they are abusive
contact people who may be considering harming themselves to connect them with healthcare professionals
The website also clarified that it considers sexual acts involving humans, humanoid animals and cartoons to be “adult material”, but said in some cases such content was permitted if flagged as “sensitive media”.
While some people have urged Twitter to take more action against abusive tweets, others have accused the website of silencing or censoring free speech.
In its new rules, the social network says: “We believe in freedom of expression and open dialogue, but that means little as an underlying philosophy if voices are silenced because people are afraid to speak up.”
Computers can be fooled into thinking a picture of a taxi is a dog just by changing one pixel, suggests research.
The limitations emerged from Japanese work on ways to fool widely used AI-based image recognition systems.
Many other scientists are now creating “adversarial” example images to expose the fragility of certain types of recognition software.
There is no quick and easy way to fix image recognition systems to stop them being fooled in this way, warn experts.
Bomber or bulldog?
In their research, Su Jiawei and colleagues at Kyushu University made tiny changes to lots of pictures that were then analysed by widely used AI-based image recognition systems.
All the systems they tested were based around a type of AI known as deep neural networks. Typically these systems learn by being trained with lots of different examples to give them a sense of how objects, like dogs and taxis, differ.
The researchers found that changing one pixel in about 74% of the test images made the neural nets wrongly label what they saw. Some errors were near misses, such as a cat being mistaken for a dog, but others, including labelling a stealth bomber a dog, were far wider of the mark.
The Japanese researchers developed a variety of pixel-based attacks that caught out all the state-of-the-art image recognition systems they tested.
“As far as we know, there is no data-set or network that is much more robust than others,” said Mr Jiawei, from Kyushu, who led the research.
Many other research groups around the world were now developing “adversarial examples” that expose the weaknesses of these systems, said Anish Athalye from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) who is also looking into the problem.
One example made by Mr Athalye and his colleagues is a 3D printed turtle that one image classification system insists on labelling a rifle.
“More and more real-world systems are starting to incorporate neural networks, and it’s a big concern that these systems may be possible to subvert or attack using adversarial examples,” he told the BBC.
While there had been no examples of malicious attacks in real life, he said, the fact that these supposedly smart systems can be fooled so easily was worrying. Web giants including Facebook, Amazon and Google are all known to be investigating ways to resist adversarial exploitation.
“It’s not some weird ‘corner case’ either,” he said. “We’ve shown in our work that you can have a single object that consistently fools a network over viewpoints, even in the physical world.
“The machine learning community doesn’t fully understand what’s going on with adversarial examples or why they exist,” he added.
Mr Jiawei speculated that adversarial examples exploit a problem with the way neural networks form as they learn.
A learning system based on a neural network typically involves making connections between huge numbers of nodes – like nerve cells in a brain. Analysis involves the network making lots of decisions about what it sees. Each decision should lead the network closer to the right answer.
However, he said, adversarial images sat on “boundaries” between these decisions which meant it did not take much to force the network to make the wrong choice.
“Adversaries can make them go to the other side of a boundary by adding small perturbation and eventually be misclassified,” he said.
Fixing deep neural networks so they were no longer vulnerable to these issues could be tricky, said Mr Athalye.
“This is an open problem,” he said. “There have been many proposed techniques, and almost all of them are broken.”
One promising approach was to use the adversarial examples during training, said Mr Athalye, so the networks are taught to recognise them. But, he said, even this does not solve all the issues exposed by this research.
“There is certainly something strange and interesting going on here, we just don’t know exactly what it is yet,” he said.
Some contents are being withheld over security or because they are corrupted or pornographic, the CIA said.
CIA director Mike Pompeo said the release included 18,000 documents, 79,000 audio files and images and more than 10,000 videos which shed light on the “plans and workings of this terrorist organisation”.
What do we learn about Bin Laden’s son Hamza?
The videos include a clip from the wedding of his son Hamza – thought to be his favourite son. Analysis of objects shown in the video suggest it was filmed in Iran. Previously only childhood videos of Hamza had been publicly seen.
The hour-long video shows Hamza – who has a moustache but no beard and wears a white headdress – sitting on a carpet with some men, while another man chants Koranic verses in the background, AP news agency reported.
Bin Laden himself is not seen in the video but one of the wedding attendees says that the “father of the groom, the prince of the mujahideen” is joyous at his son’s marriage and his joy will “spread to all the mujahideen”, AP said.
The video also shows a man questioning boys on the history of Koranic verse, boys playing football, decorations including red heart-shaped balloons and wedding food including fruit, bottles of cola, sweets and tea.
Hamza bin Laden has been mooted as a future al-Qaeda leader. The organisation has released audio messages from him in recent years and his image was superimposed onto a picture of the New York World Trade Center on the recent anniversary of the 9/11 attacks.
What was in bin Laden’s video collection?
The al-Qaeda leader had a series of animated films on his hard drive including Antz, Cars, Chicken Little and The Three Musketeers.
There were also several YouTube videos, including a viral clip from the UK called “Charlie bit my finger” and videos about crocheting, including one entitled “How to crochet a flower”. The role-playing computer game Final Fantasy VII was also on the computer.
Bin Laden also had copies of three documentaries about him, including one called Where in the World is Osama bin Laden, as well as National Geographic documentaries including Kung Fu Killers, Inside the Green Berets and World’s Worst Venom, AP reported.
The al-Qaeda leader lived in the walled compound with several members of his family. Three other men – one of Bin Laden’s sons and two couriers – and a woman were also killed in the raid.
What debate was taking place inside al-Qaeda?
The CIA said the released documents gave an insight into ideological differences between bin Laden’s al-Qaeda and the more recently formed so-called Islamic State (IS) group, as well as debates within al-Qaeda itself.
It includes material about what the organisation planned to mark the 10th anniversary of the 9/11 attacks and its efforts to get its propaganda into Western media outlets.
There is also information about al-Qaeda’s response to the Arab uprisings in 2011, disagreements over tactics and efforts to counter negative media coverage and improve its reputation among the world’s Muslims.
“TV and radio signals can be affected by atmospheric conditions, including high air pressure (which brings fine weather), heavy rain or snow.”
A spokesman for the service told the BBC that the situation was “uncommon but unpredictable”.
“It’s impossible for us to say [how many people have been affected] but it’s clear the disruption has been widespread across England and Wales,” he added.
“The good news is that during the course of the day the issue has lessened as the weather front moves through.”
Weather forecasts suggest the problem will continue for some into the evening, but a weak weather front is set to move in from the north on Thursday morning that should be more favourable for transmissions.
Women’s charity Refuge is warning about the rise of “tech abuse” – the use of technology to spy on or harass a partner.
Many victims of domestic violence report being either being harassed via online messages or having their activity monitored via their phones.
However, many do not report it to the police, the charity said.
Euleen Hope was a technophobe who escaped the control of her tech-savvy abusive ex-partner after 10 years.
He set up her email and social media accounts for her, which meant he had full access to them.
He also replaced her flip-phone with an iPhone which he then set up to be mirrored on to the pair’s iPad so he could monitor her calls and messages, and activated the phone’s location-tracker saying it would help her to get the bus.
“You wouldn’t think he was doing anything bad, he showed you what he was doing,” she said.
“I didn’t realise it was going to be part of my entrapment.”
When she noticed things such as the iPad ringing when her phone rang, her ex told her he was just testing a new app.
He also installed cameras around the house under the guise of security.
“My twin sister came round one day to visit. Normally if my friends or family came over he would sit in the room with us,” she recalled.
“This time he said he would leave us to catch up and said he would use his computer in the kitchen upstairs.
“I moved behind the camera and told my sister to keep talking, I went up the stairs and saw him listening to what he thought was our conversation.”
Ms Hope’s former partner was also physically and emotionally abusive and eventually served a prison sentence for assault and GBH.
Refuge is teaming up with Google to train its staff to better support victims who contact it as part of a new programme.
“Domestic violence is the biggest issue which impacts on the police,” said Dame Vera Baird, police and crime commissioner for Northumbria, speaking at the project launch.
“Every 30 seconds there is a domestic violence call. Two years ago, it was every minute.
“Northumbria’s police force gets 32,000 calls a year and that’s maybe a fifth or a quarter of what is actually going on.”
A 2016 survey by Comic Relief found that four out of five women who experienced abuse said their partner monitored their activity.
Twenty-year-old blogger Beth Ashley said a former boyfriend had no interest in tech until she tried to end their relationship because he was controlling and sexually abusive.
“When I got with him he didn’t even have a phone,” she said.
“I thought he was a massive technophobe until we broke up. Suddenly he started all these social media accounts and used them as a harassment tool.”
She says he also sent her a suicide note via Facebook Messenger along with graphic images of self-harm, which she later discovered he had found online.
“I went round the next day and he was just sitting there on his Xbox,” she said.
She says he would regularly turn up where she worked and she would end her shift to find 50 messages from him on her phone.
Ms Ashley was very active on social media because of her work as a blogger and online writer.
“There were times when I wanted to delete the blog, the magazines,” she said.
“I have these random moments of wanting to be invisible. Considering my job, that would be awful.”
Ms Ashley says that she had to block old friends on social media in case one of them accidentally gave him information about her activities.
After reporting him to the police, the online harassment stopped, she said.
“But the paranoia stayed for a long time,” she added.
Sandra Horley, chief executive of Refuge, said the charity had seen a case where a man had hacked the CCTV at the pub where his wife worked so he could monitor her, and another who put a tracker on his partner’s car, moved it and then accused her of losing it.
“She thought she was losing her mind,” she said.
“Technological abuse is part of a broader pattern of domestic violence.
“This project was born out of our clients’ experiences of technology-related abuse, and we will continue to make sure their needs and experiences shape our work in the years ahead.”
Numerous Google Docs users have reported that they are being mysteriously locked out of certain files in their accounts.
The error causes files to be flagged as violating Google’s terms of service.
Users received a message saying: “This item has been flagged as inappropriate and can no longer be shared.”
“We’re investigating reports of an issue with Google Docs,” a spokesman told the BBC. “We will provide more information when appropriate.”
Users have taken to Twitter to complain about the issue, saying that while they were working on documents the screen suddenly froze, and then a message came up telling them they could no longer access a file.